Arguably there is much yet to be known about reality. Derived from basic thermodynamics is that energy (E) cannot be created or destroyed and suggested is that through some basic properties of the Universe, the total mass and energy are constant. Energy can be converted into matter, and Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2; shows that energy and mass are interchangeable. This equation provides the equivalent change in which the net change of total mass and energy is constant (since energy itself cannot be created or destroyed). As such, a squared quantity of energy converted into a particle of matter its mass m will be squared.  Although not created or destroyed, energy can transform through actions (e.g., chemical, physical, and temperature) in which the net result of all work increases entropy.  Entropy is a scientific concept and thermodynamic quantity that occurs as a measurable physical property. It measures a system’s thermal energy per unit temperature associated with a state of disorder (or lack of predictability), randomness, and uncertainty

Theories such as quantum mechanics provide a way to envision properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. Quantum mechanics is the foundation of quantum physics (e.g., quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum informational science) and explains an exciting facet of reality. Both light and matter have a dual nature. As such, particles (i.e., photons and electrons and other particles of matter) sometimes appear as particles and sometimes as waves.  Whether a particle is in the wave or particle state depends on the role of the observer. Accordingly, if an individual observes the particle in its wave state, it becomes a particle, and unobserved remains in the wave state.

Regarding theories of theoretical physics, according to string theory, phenomena come about from oscillating strings of dark energy.  In neurology, it is known that neurons generate electrical patterns. Additionally, a large part of what an individual sees is not what comes in through the eyes. Instead, what is perceived is that which is inferred from electrical activity. And finally, research in neurobiology has shown that nonhuman species (e.g., insects, birds, and fish) perceive the world differently from humans, so which reality is the ‘real one?’ Could reality be a form of thought? If so, then the answer to this question regarding what is ‘real’ or ‘not real’ can be found through intangible perception. Scientific theories imply that reality requires an observer.  Whether through electrical patterns generated through firing neurons or oscillating dark energy strings, the tangible reality that an individual may observe arises from intangible energies. 

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